Wallace on Screen: The Edgar Wallace Mysteries


Little read today, Edgar Wallace was a bestselling author during the first half of the twentieth century. Estimates suggest that in 1928 a quarter of all books sold in the UK were authored by Wallace.  In America, his books were reported to be selling 250,000 copies per year.  Germany was, and remains, a strong market for his novels. During his most commercially successful period, he was reported to have sold half a million books in West Germany.

In the post-war era sales of Wallace’s novels declined in the UK. ‘The King of Thrillers’ was regarded as old-fashioned by a generation of war-weary readers who had switched their allegiance to hard-boiled American crime fiction. Wallace’s imperialistic, and misogynistic narratives were out of place in an era that saw the British Empire’s dismantling.

All too aware of declining commercial prospects, Wallace’s estate sought to reinvigorate the back catalogue’s commercial appeal through the sale of options to adapt novels for stage and screen. In 1959 agreements were in place for two film series; Danish film producer Preben Phillipsen acquired rights to adapt Wallace’s novels for German-speaking territories, and Anglo-Amalgamated secured an agreement to film ninety books for English speaking territories.


The 1960s cinemagoing experience differed significantly from its modern day counterpart. A pre-multiplex era may on cursory examination signal fewer films being made available to the ticket-buying public. This was an era when the number of cinemas was greater than today. Whereas today people go to see a single film, in the 1960s and earlier, audiences went to the cinema for an evenings entertainment. In addition to the main feature, cinemagoers viewed a supporting film (usually referred to as a B-movie).

To stimulate the UK’s film industry and protect it from being suffocated by American imports, the government legislated to increase the number of domestically produced films screened in cinemas. In order to meet quotas and qualify for any available subsidies, producers churned out B-movies secure in the knowledge that they would be able to secure some form of distribution for their product.  Disdained by the industry, largely forgotten, many British B-movies were locked away in vaults after their initial exhibition and never screened again.

In recent years seasons at the BFI, Talking Pictures broadcasts, DVD releases, and academic studies have brought renewed interest to the British B-movie, its stars, directors, production companies, and modes of distribution.

Despite the industry’s ambivalence about supporting features, evidence suggests they may have had a core group of dedicated fans. Cinemagoers deciding which “fleapit” to visit for their night of entertainment may have been swayed by the selection of advertised support features on offer. One series of films that received prominent front of house promotion was The Edgar Wallace Mysteries.


Cinema attendance in the UK peaked in 1947.  In the following years as attendance fell a number of cinemas were demolished or converted into bingo halls.  To protect the domestic industry the Harold Wilson’s government introduced a tax on cinema tickets, known as the Eady Levy. Funds raised were collected by HM Customs and Excise and passed onto the British Film Fund Agency. Revenue was distributed between British film-makers, the British Film Institute, the Children’s Film Foundation, the National Film Finance Corporation, and funds were to be allocated for filmmakers training.

The Eady Levy was a key piece of legislation at a time when doubts were being raised about the British film industry’s long-term viability. By the 1960s the Eady Levy was helping to sustain a culture of second feature filmmaking that included crime dramas, exploitation films, horror, travelogues, and sex comedies. At this time the UK film exhibition and distribution industries were dominated by two chains, the Rank Organisation and the Associated British Picture Corporation (ABPC).

In 1959 Producers Nat Cohen and Stuart Levy secured the rights to adapt Edgar Wallace’s novels. Cohen and Levy’s production company Anglo Amalgamated is today best known for being the initial producer of the Carry On franchise, and the controversial Michael Powell film Peeping Tom. Despite significant forays into mainstream production, the company’s bedrock was low budget crime B-movies. Owning its own studio, Merton Park, the company’s assembly line approach to production churned 130 films. With production costs subsidized by the Eady Levy revenue the producers realised they could generate extra funds by selling content to the then emerging international television market. To this end, they created several series that would be exhibited in UK cinemas as support features and then sold to overseas television networks. Among this batch of productions were Scotland Yard, The Scales of Justice, and The Edgar Wallace Mysteries.


Initially exhibited at ABC cinemas, forty-seven films were produced as part of The Edgar Wallace Mysteries. Merton Park Studios was famed for its efficiency. Able to shoot an entire film in 8-10 days, reports suggest its directors were expected to achieve 10-14 camera setups a day. To minimise production costs and speed up the process Edgar Wallace’s novels were updated to take place in the then present day. Despite previously recorded declining sales of the novels, the films were well received by the public, exhibitors, and critics. A cover version of the series’ theme tune by pop group The Shadows reached number 5 in the hit parade. Following theatrical screenings in the UK and commonwealth, the entire package of films was sold to American television where it was screened as Edgar Wallace Mystery Theatre.

Viewed today, the films’ use of suburban locations presents images of a country that was still recovering from World War II. Bomb damaged buildings are occasionally seen in the background of shots. The juxtaposition of 1920s thrillers and then contemporary locations creates a discontinuity which suggests that in the pre Swinging London era the nation was trapped by the legacy of its past and unsure about how to define itself in a post-colonial era.


The “quota quickies”, an earlier form of British B-movie, tended to cast stage actors. Their theatrical performances were required to compensate for static camerawork. The Edgar Wallace Mysteries cast screen character actors. Part of the appeal of watching the series today is spotting actors who would later find acclaim for playing very different roles (Michael Caine, Harry H Corbett, John Thaw, William Hartnell, Wilfred Brambell, Bernard Lee, Paul Eddington).

B-movies are a part of British screen history that has been overlooked for far too long. Series like The Edgar Wallace Mysteries are invaluable documents worthy of greater analysis.

The Edgar Wallace Mysteries is available to order from Amazon.

Book Review: Folk Horror by Adam Scovell



What is Folk Horror? When did a group of disparate texts become linked under the banner of a relatively new subgenre? Do the works of M.R. James, Dennis Wheatley, and Nigel Kneale share common preoccupations? Were The Wicker Man, The Blood on Satan’s Claw, and Witchfinder General exploitation films or did they reveal something deeper about that era’s attempts to reconcile conflicting views of past? How has this previously critically scorned subgenre become the focus of scholarship?

Writer and filmmaker Adam Scovell’s text is a subjective survey of the genre that explores its genealogy, formation of a cannon, and wider considerations about cultural shifts. Arguing that the subgenre is fluid, the author suggests that instead of using Folk Horror as a term to retrospectively categrorise books, films, and TV series, it should be employed to open up discussion about thematically connected texts and what present day attempts to form a cannon may say about the critical community.

Acknowledging that ‘Folk’ is an ambiguous term, Scovell’s study suggests that it may refer to cultural practices, aesthetic practices specific to a particular community, and thematic commonalities. Particular focus is paid to the 1960s counter-culture movement and the emergence of alternative lifestyles. This subculture sought to establish a socially progressive model of society which incorporated Folk traditions.

Scovell concedes establishing a precise definition of ‘Horror’ is equally problematic. The term is constantly modified and historically has incorporated Folklore based narratives.

The author suggests that the term may have been originated by director Piers Haggard in a 2003 interview for Fangoria Magazine.

Mark Gatiss’ 2010 documentary series A History of Horror used the term to categorize three films; The Blood on Satan’s Claw, Witchfinder General, and The Wicker Man. Gatiss noted that the films ‘shared a common obsession with the British landscape, its folklore, and superstitions.’ Scovell uses the same three films to form a Folk Horror Chain which provides a theoretical model for analysis of the subgenre, commercial imperatives, reception by later generations of critics and fans, alongside an analysis of contemporary cultural trends.

Scovell’s study is wide-ranging in scope and rigorous in its analysis. The book analyses a vast array of Folk Horror literature, films, and TV series demonstrating that the subgenre is still a potent creative and commercial force. Establishing a theoretical base for further academic investigation, he identifies core thematic elements and offers potential explanations for why Folk Horror continues to resonate.

Folk Horror is published by Auteur Publishing

Adam Scovell’s has written about key Folk Horror films for the BFI.

DVD Review: Hitchcock/Truffaut


The story of what happened when two giants of European cinema sat down to discuss their approaches to filmmaking.

In 2012 Sight & Sound published the British Film Institute’s Greatest Film poll. Conducted every ten years, critics, academics, and distributors are surveyed. Bicycle Thieves won the first poll in 1952. Since 1962 Citizen Kane sat in pole position and many thought it would reign supreme as the unbeatable champion. Although it came close to toppling Kane in 2002, news that Vertigo had finally taken the crown in 2012 was met with surprise.  That it had won the poll by a very wide margin suggests it will probably retain the title when the next survey is conducted in 2022.

Vertigo‘s achievement was surprising because it was not always held in such high esteem. Taken out of circulation after it failed to meet expectations at the box office, the only way to see the film until the mid-80s was via illicit screenings of bootleg 16mm prints. Since it’s mid-80s re-release the film and it’s director has undergone a complete critical reevaluation.

61fq3ayehul-_sl1000_Today regarded as one of Europe’s most significant directors, Hitchcock was not always held in such high esteem. Further proof of his continued cultural significance was offered by the BFI who ran a retrospective of his surviving works. In 2013 UNESCO added the nine existing Hitchcock silent films to its archive to represent the UK’s cinematic heritage. Hitchcock’s influence over modern cinema is undeniable and contemporary film fans are often surprised at learning that he was once regarded as a mere peddler of mass entertainment.

French critic and director, François Truffaut regularly visited the Cinémathèque Française as a teenager and was exposed to numerous Hollywood films. Befriending André Bazin  the co-founder of influential film publication Cahiers du cinéma, Truffaut joined the magazine’s writing team and developed the auteur theory which noted the recurrence of themes and techniques in the work of “great directors.” Emphasising the director as author of a film, his theory was initially controversial.

While in France filming To Catch a Thief, Hitchcock was interviewed by Claude Chabrol and François Truffaut for  Cahiers du cinéma. The magazine had published an issue celebrating the director’s work in 1953 and was planning another to be published in the summer of 1956. Challenging the then widely held view that Hitchcock was merely a director-for-hire churning out lurid schlock,  Truffaut and  Cahiers du cinéma helped define the modern sense of  Hitchcock as one cinema’s greatest artists.
American film critic Andrew Sarris applied Truffaut’s Auteur Theory to  an analysis of Hollywood cinema and declared “Hitchcock is the most daring avant-garde filmmaker in America today.”

025-francois-truffaut-tribe-theredlistFeeling that Hitchcock had been evasive in their first meeting, Truffaut wrote to the director and proposed a lengthy interview conducted over several days which would discuss the core elements of a Hitchcock film, approaches to filmmaking, and theories of storytelling. Hitchcock agreed and  Truffaut flew to Hollywood with translator Helen Scott. Eight days of discussion cemented Hitchcock’s critical rehabilitation. The recordings were transcribed and published in France. An English translation was issued in 1967.
Demystifying filmmaking, the book has for decades been regarded as one of the foremost texts of cinema appreciation and analysis. In recent years the authenticity of Hitchcock’s statements has been questioned due to his responses being translated into French and then translated back into English.

Kent Jones enlightening film tells the story of what happened when the Master of Suspense met La Nouvelle Vague’s shining light. Using extracts from the tape-recorded conversations we finally have an unambiguous record of what Hitchcock said over the course of those eight days.

A key moment in the history of film criticism,  Truffaut’s credentials as a director and intimate knowledge of Hitchcock’s work keep the veteran filmmaker on his toes and ensure the interview never descends into effusive gushing. Hard-core Hitchcock enthusiasts and newbies will be educated by this engrossing documentary.

hitchcock-truffaut-2015_t658Analysing key sequences from several Hitchcock films, most notably Vertigo and Psycho. The documentary also includes Hitchcock’s critical comments on a Truffaut’s shot by shot breakdown of a sequence from The 400 Blows.

Recorded when film criticism was still in its infancy, Truffaut’s encyclopaedic knowledge of thematic continuity in Hitchcock’s still stands up today as a superb work of scholarship. It’s easy to forget in the age of DVD and online streaming how hard it was to gain access to films for study purposes back then. Detecting a recurrent thread of Roman Catholic symbolism he verbally pins down Hitchcock until the veteran admits how his formative years are continually woven into his films.

Modern day perspectives from David Fincher, Olivier Assayas, Martin Scorsese, Arnaud Desplechin, Wes Anderson, James Gray, and Richard Linklater highlight why Hitchcock’s fingerprints are all over contemporary cinema.

A must-have DVD for anyone who wants to learn more about the Master of Suspense.

Hitchcock/Truffaut is available to order from Amazon

Blu-ray Review: The Blue Lamp


Caught by the Fuzz: Sentimental police drama with a shocking twist.

Although Ealing Studios is synonymous with comedy it’s output was more diverse. Alongside genteel fun fare such as Passport to Pimlico, The Ladykillers, Whisky Galore, I’m Alright Jack, The Maggie, and The Man in the White Suit, it produced costume dramas, documentaries, war and crime films. Founded in 1902, the studio’s golden period began in 1938 when Michael Balcon took over as chief executive and steered the company away from escapism and embraced realism. During the 1950s Ealing Studios took inspiration from the British documentary movement and produced realistic depictions of post-war life, most notably Pool of London and The Blue Lamp.


Seen from a twenty-first-century vantage point, The Blue Lamp offers a view of policing far removed from today’s impersonal and target-driven forms of crime enforcement. As “everyman” police officer George Dixon, Jack Warner created a role which would influence screen cop shows for decades. The character and his portrayal were etched into the hearts and minds of a generation and Warner was asked to reprise the role for a TV series (Dixon of Dock Green) which ran 21 years. At his funeral officers from the police station featured in the film acted as pallbearers.

Crime rose in the immediate aftermath of World War Two. Police Constables were the first line of defence in the war against a new breed of criminality. Long-serving officer George Dixon takes new recruit Andy Mitchell (Jimmy Hanley) under his wing and tutors the youngster in what it takes to be an effective member of the force.


Driving home the dangers officers face when they pound the beat, the shooting of George Dixon by a young hoodlum played by Dirk Bogarde still has the power to shock nearly seventy years after the scenes were filmed.

Filmed in a style which came close to approximating the then-current trends in documentary, The Blue Lamp may seem occasionally stagey to modern viewers but to its original audience it was thrilling stuff. Well paced and with a terrific performance from Bogarde this is top-flight stuff from the UK’s most famous studio.

The Blue Lamp is available to order from Amazon.

Blu-ray Review: The Small World of Sammy Lee


Restored release of a forgotten film captures the charm and sleaze of 1960s Soho.

It’s a hard day’s night for low-rent hustler and strip show compere Sammy Lee. A habitual gambler who has somehow always managed to land on his feet. His luck runs out after he is dealt a losing hand in an all-night card game. Hard-nosed debt collectors are on his tail and Sammy has five hours to raise £300 or he will have to take a severe beating.


Today largely known for inspiring David Bowie, Anthony Newley was an all round entertainer in an age when being multi-talented wasn’t frowned upon. A successful child actor, he played the Artful Dodger in David Lean’s adaptation of Oliver Twist. As an adult he simultaneously juggled several careers. Newley’s CV demonstrates that he was more than just the one-time Mr Joan Collins; pop singer, lyricist, stage, and screen actor. He experimented with electronic music ten years before David Bowie and Brian Eno decamped to Berlin. His groundbreaking series The Strange World of Gurney Slade redefined the possibilities of TV comedy several years before Monty Python picked up the gauntlet. He filmed The Small World of Sammy Lee while appearing in the West End production of Stop The World – I Want to Get Off.

Anthony Newley originally played the title role in writer-director Ken Hughes 1958 one-set BBC play. The feature-film moves beyond the confines of Sammy’s bedsit and takes the audience on a tour of a Soho and East End which was slowly rebuilding after suffering a battering during World War Two. London had yet to start swinging and gentrification was an alien word.
Sitting comfortably alongside Billy Liar, The Knack and Alfie, The Small World of Sammy Lee is an engaging example of British New Wave cinema which deserves to be better known.

A melancholic noir, it offers one of the best available glimpses of early 1960s London. Newley’s pitch-perfect performance as the jaded compere on the fringes of showbusiness trying to save his skin and protect a naïve girlfriend (Julia Foster) is cynical and compassionate. The film is packed with a gallery of actors who would soon become household names; Warren Mitchell, Lynda Baron, Roy Kinnear, Wilfred Brambell, and Derek Nimmo.

StudioCanal’s welcome release of a restored edition should introduce a new generation to Anthony Newley’s work. The revival starts here.

The Small World of Sammy Lee is available to order from Amazon.

Blu-ray Review: The Maggie


Inspired by Neil Munro’s Para Handy stories, The Maggie is a lesser known Ealing comedy that has the distinction of being the one of only two comedic films produced by Ealing Studios to be set in Scotland.

American born Director Alexander Mackendrick remains a towering figure in the history of Scottish cinema. Making his début with Whisky Galore, he would go on to direct a succession of Ealing comedies including The Man in the White Suit and The Ladykillers. After the sale of Ealing Studios he moved to America and directed the classic film noir Sweet Smell of Success.


Nominated for three BAFTA awards, The Maggie focuses on the misadventures of a crew aboard a decrepit puffer boat as they transport a wealthy American’s possessions to his holiday home. Released five years after Whisky Galore, the film offers a more satirical strain of Scottish humour that provides a commentary on post-war relations between Scotland, America, and England.

Overshadowed by the legacy of his other work for Ealing Studios, The Maggie is an exquisite comedy that has drifted into relative obscurity. A probable influence on William Forsyth’s Local Hero, it reprises themes from Mackendrick’s previous film, Whisky Galore, and may be his most personal cinematic moment.

Born to Scottish migrant workers in Boston, Massachusetts Mackendrick was sent to live in Glasgow after his father died of influenza. Raised by his grandparents, he never saw his mother again. Aspects of this traumatic upbringing are repeatedly woven into his films. Childhood, separation, and loss of innocence are recurrent themes.


Affording Mackendrick the opportunity to explore his dual cultural heritage while critiquing the English, The Maggie is an emotionally complex film which satirises materialism, highlights the inflexibility of bureaucracy, and celebrates the plight of those who take a stand against a rigid authority.

A valentine to a way of life that was rapidly disappearing as the economy restructured in the years immediately after World War II, traditionalism is contrasted with then new forms of capitalism and an increased internationalisation. The crew of an obsolete ship is unwitting ambassadors for a sector of society that resisted transformation and cherished rituals.

Former school teacher Alex Mackenzie was 61 when he became an actor. In his first screen role, he plays Captain MacTaggart, a wily veteran of the waves who desperately needs £300 to renew his shipping licence. An opportunity to raise the necessary funds arises when an official mistakenly agrees to allow a puffer boat to transport a wealthy American’s possessions to his holiday home.

After learning how his goods are being transported Calvin B. Marshall (Paul Douglas) sets out to reclaim the property. Failure to deliver the cargo will mean that the boat is decommissioned.


More fulfilling than Whisky Galore, The Maggie has been unfairly overlooked for far too long. A deeply personal film from one of the Scottish film industry’s most significant figures. Expanding themes explored in his previous film, the director probes Scotland’s relationship with its transatlantic ally through the prism of his dual nationality. The naming of Paul Douglas’ character refers to Mackendrick’s Calvinist upbringing and the Marshall Plan.

Sentimental with a subversive undercurrent, The Maggie is one of Ealing Studio’s most rewarding comedies. Deserving of greater exposure, the superb restoration from the BFI and StudioCanal should see its reputation renewed.

The Maggie is available to order from Amazon.



DVD Review: Out of the Clouds


 Lives of passengers and crew intertwine at London Airport when fog causes delays.

Offering a snapshot of an era when air travel was for many an unaffordable luxury and airports were glamorous places, Out of the Clouds is a portmanteau drama from Ealing Studios that follows the lives of people who visit and work in London (now Heathrow) Airport over a period of 24 hours.

A sedate adaptation of a novel by John Fores, the film interweaves several stories. Pilot Gus Randall (Anthony Steel) has a gambling addiction and gets involved with a smuggling ring. Duty officer Nick Milbourne (Robert Beatty) is waiting for the opportunity to become a pilot. Captain Brent (James Robertson Justice) suspects his plane has mechanical problems. Hostess Penny Henson (Eunice Gayson – Dr No, From Russia with Love) is the centre of a love triangle involving Nick and Gus.

Best known for co-directing the classic British horror film Dead of Night, Basil Dearden helmed this hymn to post-war aviation culture. Notable for its recreation of an airport terminal on one of Ealing’s largest sound stages, to a 1950s cinema-going public the setting was the film’s real star.

Fans of 1950s and ’60s British films will enjoy spotting familiar faces in roles very different from those for which they became best known. Carry On legend Sid James’ cameo nearly steals the entire film.

Restored for its sixtieth anniversary this charming period piece evokes a forevermore vanished age when passengers received personal attention and airports didn’t employ security scanners.

A lesser-known Ealing film that should be regarded with the same esteem as Passport to Pimlico and The Tifield Thunderbolt.

Out of the Clouds is available to order from Amazon.


Blu-ray Review: I’m All Right Jack


The UK’s highest grossing film of 1959 arrives on Blu-ray.

Throughout the 1940s and 1950s twin brothers, John and Roy Boulting were one of the most consistently successful directing-producing partnerships in the British film industry.

The pair founded Charter Productions in 1937. After making several documentaries Roy directed and John produced the feature-length thrillers The Landlady (1938), Consider your Verdict (1938), Inquest (1939) and Trunk Crime(1939).

During World War Two the brothers were given leave from service to make the anti-isolationist film Thunder Rock.

Politically active, John was an Ambulance driver for the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War. Roy shared his brother’s left-leaning tendencies.

Their idealism and social engagement was threaded into a succession of celebrated films, most notably Brighton Rock, that reflected post-war pessimism.

Today the pair are best remembered for a series of satires that poured scorn on the British establishment. Private’s Progress, Lucky Jim, I’m All Right Jack, Carlton-Browne of the FO, and Heaven’s Above! provide a snapshot of 1950s culture and are filled with biting swipes at institutions.

Perhaps the Boulting Brother’s most significant post-war comedy, I’m All Right Jack takes aim at industrial relations, consumerism, and television.

Winner of BAFTA’s for Best British Screenplay and Best British Actor (Peter Sellers), the film struck a chord with a nation struggling to reconcile itself to new forms of manufacturing, emerging marketplaces, and union practices.

Adapted from a short story by Alan Hackney, I’m All Right Jack featured a stellar cast of comedic actors including Peter Sellers, Ian Carmichael, Terry Thomas, Margaret Rutherford Irene Handl, and John Le Mesurier.

Reportedly, the Queen arranged a private screening for Prime Minister Harold Wilson when he visited Balmoral seeking permission to dissolve parliament and call a general election.

Sequel to the 1956 satire A Private’s Progress. Ian Carmichael plays Stanley Windrush, an inept over-educated and under-experienced university graduate unable to find lasting employment. After a succession of interviews at factories prove fruitless, his uncle offers a job at a missile factory with the vague promise of career advancement.

An unwitting patsy, Windrush does not suspect he has been placed in the factory to upset relations between management and the unions. A small-scale dispute carefully orchestrated by the company’s directors to pad their pockets with tax-free cash when a contract is reassigned becomes a national strike. With the country falling to pieces the press is eager to tell Stanley’s story.

Strikes had been outlawed during World War Two and in the brave new world of an increasingly technologised workplace, the unions were increasingly militant. Keen to flex their collective muscle and resist attempts at getting employees to increase their workload without extra payments the threat of strike action was ever present in the 1950s.

Central to the film’s success is Peter Sellers portrayal of the union leader Fred Kite. A cross between Hitler and Charlie Chaplin, the Stalinist becomes a tragic figure when his unwillingness to compromise causes his wife and daughter to leave the family home. Sellers’ comic timing is offset with an ability to convey pathos with slight gestures.

Making a very welcome debut on Blu-ray, this rip-roaring comedy has not lost its bite. A laugh out loud classic.

I’m All Right Jack is available to order from Amazon.